METEOROLOGICAL EQUIPTMENT IN USE IN THE '60'S IN ARMY MOS 93E2



Updated April 8, 2006 to add the image of the equiptment on the School roof. Updated July 20, 2010 to add the photos of a radiosonde launch at Ft. Sill.


In the 1950's and early 1960's the School's meteorological equiptment was on the roof of the building. By the time I took the class in late 1963 most of the equiptment had been moved to the Building 200 area. David Olsen provide the picture below showing the roof set-up in 1958.

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS

Some of the instruments used for Surface Weather Observations are shown in the Weather Shelter in the image below right. Visible are several thermometers (wet bulb, dry bulb, maximum, minimum, etc.) and the hand is pointing to the chart recording barometer (photo provided by Jim Fridley). Below left is the template we used to remember how to plot all the information around the station circle on Surface Weather Maps.


Jerry O. Park (Met class of September, 1959) provide the two pictures below. He was stationed at Ft. Greely in Alaska. He says: "The orange box in the Alaska photo is an insulated shelter to house the anemometer recorders which malfunctioned in extreme cold.The metal cylinder extending from the bottom was intended to contain a lighted kerosene flare pot like they used to use on the hiway to warn of road construction.The first time we left one burning we returned the next day to find the entire shelter destroyed by fire.We continued to use the shelter without the flare pot with no further problems.The shelter was an invention of our first sergeant and we referred to them as rabbit hutches when he wasn't listening."



There was an interesting auction of an Army aneroid barometer on Ebay in October, 2004. I received permission from the seller (Merrill) to reproduce the image and description from his auction. This is a circa 1970 instrument, but it looks identical to the one I used. Here is what the auction said: US ARMY BAROMETER ML 102G WALLACE&TIERNAN W/MANUAL Item number: 2276274453 Auction ended Oct. 17, 2004 (minimum bid not met). "This auction is for a GENUINE U.S. ARMY VIETNAM era field barometer made by Wallace&Tiernan about 1970. Complete with a copy of the original War Department technical manual,( the cover does not list ML102G on it, but it is covered with updates and changes). The manual lists maintenance, operation,uses, and repair. These were used for weather predicting, surveying and of course, the setting of aircraft altimeters. They have a fully jewelled movement, twin capsules, and incredible American craftsmanship.Dual sweep dial, graduated in millibars. Swing down scale in lid for temperature and altitude corrections. With original Canvas case,that is green velvet lined(VERY RARE). Serial # 2532 is marked on movement arm and on dial. 5" square dial,6 3/8" square overall.Overhauled at SAAD army depot on 1/11/90.Spotless dial, lense and case makes this high precision instrument the nicest example of this type I have ever seen, and the most accurate,( all it required was a minor adjustment of the "base" setting)! I "ran" it up and down in my chamber to verify that "hysterisis" was not present.Check out the calibration report for accuracy readings,(this ultra-precision veteran instrument has been fully calibrated in my Ideal-Aerosmith barometric chamber)."

MICROMETEOROLOGY

On the right is an image of the Eppley Pyrheliometer which we used to measure Incoming Solar Radiation. This scan was provided by Mr. Tom Kirk of Eppley Laboratory, Inc.. Eppley is still making radiation measuring equiptment (although they no longer look like this) forty years after we used them.

The images of the two Minneapolis-Honeywell Potentiometric Recorders shown below were provided by Mr. Fred Vodde of Honeywell. You can imagine how tough it was to find pictures of 40 year old electronic equiptment. We used these recorders for temperature, humidity, Incoming Solar Radiation, etc. measurments in the Micrometeorology part of the school. Their big black cases have stuck in my mind. In August 1964 I was sent TDY to the Army Pictorial Center in Astoria, Long Island City, New York for 3 weeks to star in a training film on how to install charts, change ink cartridges, pens etc. on the Minneapolis-Honeywell electronic recorders we used in the Micro-meteorology phase of the course. The training films were released in June, 1965 and were called; "Meteorological Instruments, PT I--Potentiometer Type Recorders: TF 11-3533" and "Meteorological Instruments, PT II--Calibration Check of Potentiometer Type Rec: TF 11-3534". The Army declaired the films obsolete in May 1993 after using them for 28 years. I never saw the finished training films, but the experience stuck with me.


UPPER AIR OBSERVATIONS

The images below were provided by Bob Robinson (a 1959 graduate of the school) . Bob says: " The upper air observation, as we practiced it at Ft. Huachuca on a daily operational basis, utilized 3 people. One for the TMQ-5, one for plotting the adiabatic charts, and one for determining winds aloft. The emphasis was on getting the resultant observation to the forecaster as soon as possible."
The photo on the left shows: "SP4 George (Andy) Anderson trying to launch a 300g radiosonde balloon at Ft. Huachuca. Believe he was in an earlier class. I had heard that he transferred to Dugway years later." The one on the right is: "SGT Bob (Goldie) Goldsmith with the GMD-1A antenna at Ft. Huachuca. Not sure when he was at Ft. Monmouth but I believe he had been at Ft. Greeley for a time."


The next image was provided by J.R. Hoff and shows him at the controls of a Radiosonde receiver at White Sands, NM. J.R. was a Jan. 1972 graduate of the 93E School (after it had moved to Ft. Sill, OK). He is sitting in front of the AN/TMQ-5 Radiosonde Recorder and the C-557/GMD-1 Control Recorder is on the table to his right. Notice the large circular slide rule on top the Control Recorder which was used in computing values.


Both those Instruments are shown below from TM 11-6660-206-10, "Operator's Manual Rawin Sets AN/GMD-1A an AN/GMD-1B" (Feb. 1961).


The picture on the right below was taken from the "Operation Deep Freeze 60 Task Force 43" yearbook since I could not find any similar picture of Ft. Monmouth personel. It shows Preston Tuning and Robert Feyerharm plotting upper air tracking data.The image on the left below was taken by Jerry O Park in Alaska in 1960. Holding the balloon is Joe Cwalina and on the theodolite is Charles Amen from Stearling , Colorado. They are preparing for a pibal observation whereby observers would track a balloon with a theodolite to determine wind direction and speed.


Much of this equiptment was used with the Radiosonde AN/AMT-4A shown on the left below to plot up information on the Skew T, Log P diagram shown on the right below.



Don Wimer was a 93F graduate at Ft. Sill in early 1968. They used much of the same equipment that 93E's used. He provided the series of photos below on a radiosonde launch at Ft. Sill.



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